I recently (this afternoon) had a problem with a local sharepoint 2013 install. It was refusing to install apps fully then also refused to uninstall those failed installs. Turns out my setup was missing the App Management proxy and I hadn’t configured the CNAME record for the application subdomain properly (it was pointing to the DNS server rather than the app server).
This post from MSDN covers everything you need to do from start to end. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/fp161236.aspx
I just picked a couple of things from it that I could see were missing and et voila, all fixed and running properly. It even managed to finish off the uninstall that was left pending, clever, no more sharepoint uninstalling apps problems for me (well, today at least)